Pancreatic Cancer: A Biomarker Challenge

Current tests produce both false negatives and false positives; accurate tests will likely need to include multiple markers.

Illustration of pancreatic cancer from Scientific Animations (BY-SA Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International).
Figure 1. Sources of potential biomarkers for cancer. Cancer biomarkers are present in body fluids, including the blood, saliva, urine, or breath. Various techniques exist to identify cancer-associated changes in the abundance of specific proteins; alterations in DNA sequence or epigenetic modifications; the presence of cancer-specific gene expression profiles in the form of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), or microRNA (miRNA) profiles; and changes in the abundance of volatile organic compounds and cellular metabolites. Image compilation by Nancy R. Gough, BioSerendipity. DNA and mRNA illustrations from Sponk / *translation: Sponk — Chemical structures of nucleobases by Roland1952, CC BY-SA 3.0,; LncRNA illustration from lncRNA from Wang et al., Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, 2659 (2017) DOI: 10.3390/ijms18122659 CC BY 4.0

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