Most of the research studies you cite are studies using cultured cells (in vitro studies), not using hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine in humans. The others are news articles, not research studies. I completely agree that hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are being used by some countries. That is not in dispute. What is not completely clear is if this is truly working, if it needs to be administered at a particular time during the infection, what the appropriate dosage is, and if only a subset of patients will respond effectively. The data are simply not sufficiently robust to be sure. The study I am most interested in is this one “Hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 Post-exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)” https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04328961. My prediction is that this will only be effective at early stages of infection or as a preventative measure following exposure. Patients who become so sick as to require hospitalization will not benefit.

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