Scientist, editor, and writer with a PhD in Pharmacology
How much risk of COVID-19 is there in receiving a delivery? Credit: Food photo created by

Online tool helps you understand how risk of getting COVID-19 changes in different situations.

Researchers developed a model for how COVID-19 transmission changes under different conditions and then put together a cool online interactive graphic that displays the amount of risk of getting infected with SARS-CoV-2, and thus getting COVID-19. …

COVID-19 rapid antigen test. Example of negative result. Credit: Daniel Eriksson, CC BY 4.0 <>, via Wikimedia Commons

Reducing spread of SARS-CoV-2 requires easy access to rapid tests.

The currently available vaccines do not prevent a person from becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2. They give your immune system an introduction to the virus so that your immune system can respond using both parts: The innate immune system and the adaptive immune system. Without the vaccine and without previous exposure…

I saw this a lot as an editor and now as a scientific consultant. Senior scientists convey the message "show me these results" rather than "investigate if x does y or if x and y happen." The point of research is not to provide support for a pre-existing model but to test the model.

Vaccines are like chain mail that protects you from infection. Credit: Tilemahos Efthimiadis from Athens, Greece, CC BY-SA 2.0 <>, via Wikimedia Commons

Vaccinated people are protected from all current SARS-CoV-2 variants.

The goal of the vaccines is to prevent severe disease that requires hospitalization or death from COVID-19. The vaccines administered in the United States do this extremely well. This does not mean no one who was vaccinated will ever get seriously ill from COVID-19. But the chances of getting seriously…

Vaccines based on the Spike protein provide protection against COVID-19. Image shows viral particle with the S protein in red in the center. On each side is the 3-D structure of this S protein complex showing each of the three S proteins in the complex in a different color. [Compilation by Nancy R. Gough, BioSerendipity, LLC]

3 Vaccines Protect against COVID-19.

Clinical trial results from 3 vaccines show that the vaccines have good efficacy. This means that they protect the people who receive the vaccine from getting severe COVID-19. Two of the vaccines are based on a new technology that has not been used before in approved vaccines. The technology is…

Too much histamine or prostaglandin D2 signaling or too little interferon signaling lead to increased risk for severe COVID-19.

An imbalanced immune response appears to be the key to whether a person develops severe COVID-19 with pneumonia and other complications such as coagulopathy (excessive formation of blood clots), impaired kidney function, neurological issues, and heart complications. Multiple mechanisms likely contribute to the variability in the immune response within the…

Nancy R. Gough, PhD

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