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Scientist, editor, and writer with a PhD in Pharmacology
Cytotoxic CD8 T cells killing an virus-infected cell. Image by Nancy R. Gough, BioSerendipity, LLC using

COVID-19 vaccines prevent severe illness not necessarily infection. Image by Alexandra_Koch from Pixabay

Vaccines based on the Spike protein provide protection against COVID-19. Image shows viral particle with the S protein in red in the center. On each side is the 3-D structure of this S protein complex showing each of the three S proteins in the complex in a different color. [Compilation by Nancy R. Gough, BioSerendipity, LLC]

3 Vaccines Protect against COVID-19.

Too much histamine or prostaglandin D2 signaling or too little interferon signaling lead to increased risk for severe COVID-19.

Ramatroban, an allergy medicine used in Japan may be beneficial for COVID-19 treatment, especially in the elderly and obese.

An available medication used in Japan for allergies could be an effective treatment for COVID-19 in the elderly and overweight.

The key to successful social interaction bubbles is preventing anyone in the bubble from getting the virus. [Credit Nancy R. Gough, BioSerendipity, LLC]

It only takes one person to turn a social interaction bubble into a germ circle.

Mutations in genes in interferon signaling and autoantibodies targeting interferon explain ~14% of severe COVID-19 cases. Image shows DNA, interferon, and antibodies. [Credit: Nancy R. Gough, BioSerendipity, LLC]

Genetic variations and autoantibodies that compromise interferon signaling explain ~14% of severe COVID-19 cases.

Lyme disease word cloud. From

The engineered protein vaccine VLA15 induces multiple antibodies in a Phase II trial and has the potential to provide protection against the different bacteria that cause Lyme disease in North America and Europe.

CDC guidelines and news coverage sow confusion about immunity. [Credit: Nancy R. Gough, BioSerendipty, LLC]

CDC guidelines do not mean we know how long COVID-19 immunity lasts.

Different reactions to the risk of COVID-19 as represented by people toasting at a bar and someone staying home and wearing a mask. [Compilation by Nancy R. Gough, BioSerendipity, LLC]

Fear of the unknown and comfort with risk

  • A fraction of infected people will become desperately ill or even die, but we have no way of knowing who those people are in advance.
  • No universally effective treatment is available for those who will become severely ill with COVID-19, so we don’t know if treatment will…

Nancy R. Gough, PhD

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