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Scientist, editor, and writer with a PhD in Pharmacology


COVID-19 rapid antigen test. Example of negative result. Credit: Daniel Eriksson, CC BY 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons

Reducing spread of SARS-CoV-2 requires easy access to rapid tests.


Vaccines are like chain mail that protects you from infection. Credit: Tilemahos Efthimiadis from Athens, Greece, CC BY-SA 2.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0>, via Wikimedia Commons

Vaccinated people are protected from all current SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Cytotoxic CD8 T cells killing an virus-infected cell. Image by Nancy R. Gough, BioSerendipity, LLC using BioRender.com


COVID-19 vaccines prevent severe illness not necessarily infection. Image by Alexandra_Koch from Pixabay


Vaccines based on the Spike protein provide protection against COVID-19. Image shows viral particle with the S protein in red in the center. On each side is the 3-D structure of this S protein complex showing each of the three S proteins in the complex in a different color. [Compilation by Nancy R. Gough, BioSerendipity, LLC]

3 Vaccines Protect against COVID-19.


Too much histamine or prostaglandin D2 signaling or too little interferon signaling lead to increased risk for severe COVID-19.


Ramatroban, an allergy medicine used in Japan may be beneficial for COVID-19 treatment, especially in the elderly and obese.

An available medication used in Japan for allergies could be an effective treatment for COVID-19 in the elderly and overweight.


The key to successful social interaction bubbles is preventing anyone in the bubble from getting the virus. [Credit Nancy R. Gough, BioSerendipity, LLC]

It only takes one person to turn a social interaction bubble into a germ circle.

Nancy R. Gough, PhD

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